Jean pierre bemba gombo on 10 may 2007, the prosecutor informed the government of the central african republic, pretrial chamber iii and the president of the court of his decision to open an investigation. The case that i prosecuted on behalf of the international criminal tribunal for rwanda was the case of the prosecutor v. The analyses draw on facts judicially established using the evidentiary standard of beyond reasonable doubt in the prosecutor vs. International criminal tribunal for rwanda ictr author. Ictr0165t judgement 11 september 2006 3 the victims must be targeted because of their membership in the protected group, and the.
Akayesu was denied the right to be defended by counsel of his choice. An exchange between martin shaw and omer bartov, 12 journal of genocide research 243, 244 2010. Ictr964t, 2 september 1998 and sentencing judgment, the prosecutor v. On 2 september 1998, trial chamber i of the tribunal found him guilty of nine out of fifteen counts charging him with genocide, crimes against humanity and violations of the geneva conventions in the first ever trial before the tribunal. International criminal tribunal for rwanda, september 2, 1998. Gender crimes and crimes of sexual violence are no longer as invisible as they once were thanks largely to the work of feminist scholars, practitioners, and activists, and. Considering also the oral submissions made by jeanpaul akayesu at the said hearing of 28 september 1998, after having expressly given up his rights to be represented by counsel. Genocidal gender and sexual violence the legacy of the ict, rwandas ordinary courts and gacaca courts. He was appointed lead trial attorney and prosecuted prosecutor vs. The accused, jean paul akayesu, was the bourgmestre mayor of taba and was indicted on 15 counts of genocide, crimes against humanity and violations of article 3 common to the geneva conventions and additional protocol ii thereto. Jeanpaul akayesu was charged with genocide, crimes against humanity, and violations of common article 3 and additional protocol ii. Magnarella, some milestones and achievements at the international criminal tribunal for rwanda. The case arose out of the massacres of perhaps a million tutsi in.
Jeanpaul akayesu, laurent semanza, sylvestre gacumbitsi, and mikaeli muhimana. The tribunal was established by united nations security council resolution. Proof of specific intent, may, in the absence of direct explicit evidence, be inferred from a number of facts and circumstances, such as the general context, the perpetration of other culpable acts systematically directed against the same group, the scale of atrocities committed. Convictions for sexual violations, including rape, have been issued and upheld on appeal for the following four persons to date. On the basis of the foregoing, we find that an armed conflict exists whenever there is a resort to armed force between states or protracted armed violence between governmental authorities and organized armed groups or between such groups within a state. Jeanpaul akayesu born 1953, taba, rwanda is a former teacher, school inspector, and. From 1996 to late 1998, prosper served as a war crimes prosecutor for the united nations international criminal tribunal for rwanda. Jean paul akayesu knew that the acts of sexual violence, beatings and murders were being committed and was at times present during their commission. Jean paul akayesu,6 rendered the first conviction ever for acts of genocide. Before his election as mayor of taba, he was first a teacher, then education inspector. For instance, on 2 september 1998, trial chamber i of the ictr found jeanpaul akayesu guilty of, among other things, genocide, which was the first conviction ever for this international crime.
Filings for this case in the judicial records and archives database. Trial chamber 1 is sitting on this day, 2 september 1998, to deliver its judgment in the case the prosecutor versus jean paul akayesu, case no. The indictment against jeanpaul akayesu was submitted by the prosecutor on february 1996 and was confirmed on 16 february 1996. Akayesu judgment pdf the judgment was appealed before the appeals chamber, which issued its judgment on 1 june the prosecutor v.
Jean paul akayesu facilitated the commission of the sexual violence, beatings and murders by allowing the sexual violence and beatings and murders to occur on or near the bureau communal premises. Trial of wilhelm list and others the hostages trial, u. Related documents the prosecutor of the tribunal against jeanpaul akayesu sentencing judgement cite as. Rwanda tribunal to rule on akayesu case human rights watch. While working and living in rwanda for nearly three years in the aftermath of the genocide, he was appointed lead trial attorney and prosecuted prosecutor vs. Shannon mizzi, columnist despite the existence of myriad prevention tools and an almost 70yearold international legal framework for justice and accountability, genocides continue around the world. The indictment against jean paul akayesu was submitted by the prosecutor on february 1996 and was confirmed on 16 february 1996. In june 1997, the prosecutor amended the akayesu indictment to include charges of sexual violence. National, ethnic, racial, and religious groups protected. O estupro enquanto genocidio no tribunal penal internacional. He started his political career in the mouvement democratique republicain mdr. Jeanpaul akayesu 1999 established for the first time that an accused was convicted of not only crimes against humanity and genocide art. Salim jamil ayyash, hassan habib merhi, hussein hassan oneissi and assad hassan sabra. The indictment was confirmed on february 16 of the same year.
The scope and elements of genocide were thus broadened to include rape as a crime against humanity. Fatou bensouda, opened a preliminary examination into the situation of palestine. It happened to be the first time that the genocide convention had been put into practice. The indictment against jean paul akayesu was submitted by the prosecutor on febmary 1996 and was confirmed on 16 february 1996. Akayesus criminal responsibility was based on both his direct and indirect participation in the 1994. So far only two are in existence, one the international criminal tribunal for rwanda ictr for the rwandan genocide of 1994.
On 8 june 2018, the appeals chamber of the international criminal court decided, by majority, to acquit jean pierre bemba gombo from the charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Both jean paul akayesu and the prosecutor have appealed against the. It included 15 charges for genocide, crimes against humanity, and violations of article 3 common to the geneva conventions and additional protocol 2. At the preentencing hearing on the 28 september 1998. The prosecutor of the tribunal against jeanpaul akayesu. Subsequently, some trial chambers have made use of the language of motives when referring to specific intent. On january 16, 2015, the prosecutor of the icc, mrs. Pdf the crime of rape under the rome statute of the icc. Jean paul akayesu born 1953, taba, rwanda is a former teacher, school inspector, and republican democratic movement mdr politician from rwanda. Genocidal gender and sexual violence the legacy of the ict. The indictment against jeanpaul akayesu was submitted by the prosecutor on febmary 1996 and was confirmed on 16 february 1996. The present judgment constitutes the firstever judgment by an international court for the crime of genocide. The cases united nations international criminal tribunal.
He was the mayor of taba commune in gitarama prefecture from april 1993 until june 1994 as mayor, akayesu was responsible for performing executive functions and maintaining. Considering that jeanpaul akayesu was convicted of genocide, crime against humanity, direct and. Two days later, the same trial chamber i convicted and, for the first time in history, sentenced a person, jean kambanda, to life imprisonment for. The prosecutor filed charges against akayesu before the ictr on february, 1996. Chamber on 2 september 1998 and 2 october 1998 respectively in the case of the prosecutor v.
Jean paul akayesu caso ayyash et al the prosecutor v. Article 22 of the statute on judgement, articles 23 and 26 dealing respectively with penalties and enforcement of sentences, rules 100, 101, 102. A list of designations and abbreviations used in this appeals judgment is included in annex c. Jeanpaul akayesu, the firstever case of genocide under the 1948. The uncondemned, an award winning documentary about the first prosecution of rape as a war crime, will be screened at the annual meeting of the american society of international law on friday, april 14 at 7. It was amended during the trial, in june 1997, with the addition of three counts to 15 and three paragraphs 10a, 12a and 12b. Jul, 2008 the chapter discusses the procedural history and jurisprudential contributions of the case against jean paul akayesu before the international criminal tribunal for rwanda. It was amended during the trial, in june 1997, with the addition of three counts to 15 and paragraphs loa, l2a 128. Ictr9952t, is rendered by trial chamber i the chamber of the international criminal tribunal for rwanda the tribunal. Rape as genocide at the international criminal court for rwanda. International humanitarian law applies from the initiation of such armed conflicts and.
It has been successful in finding mayor jeanpaul akayesu, former prime minister jean kambanda, and businessman and militia leader omar serushago, guilty of genocide, among other crimes. Mass atrocities occur daily in iraq, darfur, and syria. Awardwinning akayesu documentary to be screened at asil. Legacy website of the international criminal tribunal for rwanda. Jeanpaul akayesu, ictr964a, appeals chamber, 1 june 2001. Jeanpierre bemba gombo on 10 may 2007, the prosecutor informed the government of the central african republic, pretrial chamber iii and the president of the court of his decision to open an investigation. As it has previously done in the cases the prosecutor versus jean kambanda and the prosecutor versus jean paul akayesu, the chamber will apply the statutory and regulatory provisions hereafter. Download fulltext pdf the crime of rape under the rome statute of the icc with a special emphasis on the jurisprudence of the ad hoc criminal tribunals article pdf available august 2011. As bourgmestre, cormnon article iii should apply to mr.
Introduction and summary of conclusions the rwanda tribunal erred in holding that cormnon article iii of the geneva convention did not apply to mr. Jeanpaul akayesu,6 becoming the first international criminal tribunal to define rape as an act of genocide and to find an individual guilty of genocide on the basis, inter alia, of acts of rape and sexual violence. While working and living in rwanda for nearly three years in the aftermath of the genocide, he was appointed lead trial attorney and successfully prosecuted prosecutor vs. This decision was based on the ictr using a narrow view of international law.
Jeanpaul akayesu, the firstever case of genocide under the 1948 convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide. Miller, from the international criminal tribunal for rwanda to the inter national criminal court. The chapter then traces akayesu s legacy with respect to gender justice with respect to subsequent cases before the ad hoc international tribunals and within the statute of. Jeanpaul akayesu born 1953, taba, rwanda is a former teacher, school inspector, and republican democratic movement mdr politician from rwanda, convicted of genocide for his role in inciting the rwandan genocide. In the akayesu case, in which the head of the taba commune, jeanpaul akayesu, was accused and convicted for his role in the violence and killings. In order to prevent a culture of impunity and support the return of the rule of law, the icty and the ictr were framed not only as tribunals in which perpetrators would be prosecuted but also as a key component of united nations peacekeeping operations and reconciliation. This pioneering opinion marks the first time an international criminal tribunal has tried and convicted an individual for genocide and international crimes of sexual violence.
Akayesu 1401 summary of the judgement in jean paul akayesu case ictr964t delivered on 2 september 1998 1. He was the mayor of taba commune in gitarama prefecture from april 1993 until june 1994. On 2 september 1998, trial chamber i of the tribunal found him guilty of nine out of fifteen counts charging him with genocide, crimes against humanity and violations of the geneva conventions in. Jeanpaul akayesu, the firstever case of genocide under the 1948 genocide convention. Jun 01, 2001 the accused, jean paul akayesu, was the mayor of taba, rwanda. Case information sheet international criminal court. Ictr prosecutor erin mcbee, new england school of law jean paul akayesu, case no. Ictr prosecutor erin mcbee, new england school of law jeanpaul akayesu, case no.
Jeanpaul akayesu rwanda in 1998, the international criminal tribunal for rwanda ictr made history when the war crimes charges in this case moved far beyond the familiar definitions of genocide in international law. Sentence of life imprisonment affirmed on appeal on 1 june 2001. The rwandan tribunal in its akayesu judgment addresses and clari. Yugoslavia, the international court of justice rejected a submission of the respondent to the effect that the responsibility of states under the genocide convention entails no more. Ferdinand nahimana, jeanbosco barayagwiza and hassan ngeze, case no. Since the submission of the amicus brief, the coalition has continued working to encourage the. The akayesu case before the international criminal tribunal for rwanda. Anto furundzija caso kunarac et al the prosecutor v. Thus there was an expectation that both tribunals would promote and enhance justice and peace as michael humphrey. As mayor, akayesu was responsible for performing executive functions and maintaining order in taba, meaning. The accused, jeanpaul akayesu, was the mayor of taba, rwanda.1308 1632 1151 1253 1546 1324 1383 1269 819 431 1619 1460 1352 1569 1596 872 687 673 1074 268 694 893 888 318 540 506 211 1449 1261 1131 587 493 161 1209 527 544