Plant pollinator population dynamics pdf

Sohail, muhammad sagheer abstract insects are powerful and rapid adaptive organisms with high fecundity rate and short life cycle. Environmental effects on insects and their population dynamics a. Effects of population size on plant reproduction and pollinator. Consequences of plant population size and density for planta. Pdf plant population dynamics, pollinator foraging, and. Pollination ecology research assistant pbc internships. We formulate and analyze a multigeneration population dynamics model for pollinators mutualism with plants. Jul 25, 2014 interactions between species in a community may be mutually beneficial, competitive, or exploitative.

This often leads to an extinction threshold, defined as a density below which population densities decrease. The growth of a plant population in the presence of pollinators is then described by m g p kp1 ik k dp iip fb pveg ib1 p i dp p i,3 h p where b p denotes the conversion of pollen to seeds. Phenology determines the robustness of plantpollinator. This can increase the net benefits to the plant population by limiting the number of eggs laid, if the pollination rate remains high. If the focal plant becomes sufficiently rare, a pollinator population that relies on the focal plant is unable to achieve a positive growth rate. We consider how concepts in plant ecology community assembly and functional trait diversity. Pollinators include bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, flies, birds, and bats. Many shortlived plants have ephemeral, pulsed dynamics lasting only a single generation, with recruitment determined almost entirely by germination biology. Temporal and densitydependent impacts of an invasive plant on pollinators and pollination services to a native plant christina r. Nonrandom features of such networks may reflect organizing processes. Population dynamics of plant and pollinator communities. Plant population dynamics, pollinator foraging, and the selection of. Review of pollinators and pollination relevant to the.

Theoretical research attempting to model specific mechanisms of plantpollinator dynamics has found that most competitive pollination interactions should lead to a loss of biodiversity kunin and iwasa 1996. In the case of plantpollinator networks, several studies have incorporated population dynamics 7,41,42 but assuming that per capita interaction. My aim is to show a mechanism by which pollination mutualism could persist when there exist nectar robbers. P determines the visitation rate of pollinators and quantitatively alters the rates of selfing and outcrossing, thereby eventually affecting plant population dynamics. Using a mathematical model, we study how adaptations of pollinator preferences in. Critical transitions in plantpollinator systems induced by. Developing these approaches into inexpensive, widely accessible tools that could be readily used by field scientists, beekeepers, and conservationists would greatly improve monitoring and management of diseases and population dynamics in both managed and wild pollinator. Plant pollinator robber systems are considered, where the plants and pollinators are mutualists, the plants and nectar robbers are in a parasitic relation, and the pollinators and nectar robbers consume a common limiting resource without interfering competition. A gravity model for the spread of a pollinatorborne plant. Fruit abortion, particularly when selective, may have consequences for the dynamics of the pollinator population by lowering recruitment and thus affecting the population size of the pollinator.

Dynamics of plantpollinatorrobber systems springerlink. Models of some potential functional response curves in terms of gross bene. A plantpollinator community can be represented by a bipartite network, with the plant and pollinator species as nodes and their interactions as edges 3941. It is important to know how habitat connectivity is influenced by pollinator traits, such as levels of generality in plant associations, population structure e. Phenologies can evolve, but the role of evolution in the response of mutualisms to climate change is poorly understood. Due to human interruption in agroecosystem and global climatic variations are disturbing the insect ecosystem. Foremost is perhaps the simple fact that, even for iconic localities such as the galapagos, which have long attracted the attention of natural historians, we still know very little about plant mating and the structure of plant pollinator networks. Jan 04, 2011 a plantpollinator community can be represented by a bipartite network, with the plant and pollinator species as nodes and their interactions as edges 3941. Plantpollinator mutualisms in our model experience two. Empiricists have reported a variety of relations between flower or plant density and pollinator. The presentations ranged broadly, from basic questions in population biology, including resource use and allocation, demography, and population forecasting, through plantplant and nonconsumer plantanimal interac tions, to communitylevel studies of competitive dynamics, assembly rules. Animal pollinators are needed for the reproduction of 90% of flowering plants and one third of human food crops. Plant ecology how do belowground organisms pages 111. Schematic overview of the model of plant and pollinator population dynamics.

Population dynamics and the ecological stability of obligate. Our mating systemsbased population dynamics model includes an allee effect. We show such an interaction network for a highly simplified community in fig. A compartment model of honey bee colony population dynamics figure 2 was developed to explore the impact of different death rates of forager bees on colony growth and development and suggests that colony failure can be understood in terms of observed principles of honey bee population dynamics. We developed a model that explicitly considers both the evolution and the population dynamics of a plantpollinator mutualism under climate change. In the case of plant pollinator networks, several studies have incorporated population dynamics 7,41,42 but assuming that per capita interaction strengths are governed only by population sizes. How mycorrhizal associations drive plant population and. Experimental simulation of pollinator decline causes.

If the focal plant becomes sufficiently rare, a pollinator population that relies on the focal. Pdf plant population dynamics, pollinator foraging, and the. The start date is somewhat flexible beginning in late mayearly june and runs for up to weeks depending on specific start date. Summary status of pollinators in north america the. Drought conditions can also affect plant population dynamics by altering plantpollination interactions gallagher and campbell, 2017. Population dynamics, pollination ecology and the significance. For example, mutualistic networks such as plantpollinator communities are nested. In plantpollinator communities many pollinators are potential. Pdf pollinator functional response and plant population. More details about the modeling framework can be found intransparent methods.

The centerpiece of our model is an analytical expression for populationlevel plantpollinator interactions extrapolated from a model of individuallevel flowers and bees interactions. Drought conditions can also affect plant population dynamics by altering plant pollination interactions gallagher and campbell, 2017. The projects method of focusing on rare plant conservation as well as the conservation of its natural pollinator community is one that can be applied to many entomogamous endangered species. Understanding the impact of idiosyncratic individual plant behaviour on population dynamics will also improve demographic parameter estimation, including population growth rate and net reproductive rate. In addition, environmental disturbance can lead to declines in plant and pollinator population growth here expressed by the rates of c and k, respectively. Pdf ecology and evolution of plantpollinator interactions. Results plant and pollinator dynamics under different conditions of resource. Population dynamics and the stability of obligate pollination. Competition, traitmediated facilitation, and the structure. Some of the most exciting advances in pollination biology have resulted from.

Competition, traitmediated facilitation, and the structure of plant. Climate change imposes selection on the focal plant population and so reduces its density. Population dynamics, pollination ecology and the significance of plant height in aloe candelabrum c. This report of the national research councils committee on the status of pollinators in north america is an assessment of pollinating animals in the united states, canada, and mexico. A network model for plantpollinator community assembly pnas. The declinehas prompted many studies that investigate the role of pollinator. For example, these two approaches have been essential for understanding the functional ecology of floral traits, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plantpollinator interactions. This kind of approach would be extremely valuable if implemented on a larger scale. Many flowering plants rely on pollinators, selffertilization, or both for reproduction.

Ecology and evolution of plantpollinator interactions. For about 70 years, theoretical research analyzing the population dynamics of mutualisms. The centerpiece of our model is an analytical expression for population level plant pollinator interactions extrapolated from a model of individuallevel flowers and bees interactions. Population dynamics of apis mellifera an application of n. Theoreticalpopulationbiology782010270277 contents lists available at sciencedirect theoreticalpopulationbiology journal homepage. Frd research unit for plant growth and development, university of natal, pietermaritzburg 3200, south africa. We synthesize current knowledge about mycorrhizal effects on plantplant interactions and ecological specialization. Both selective abortion of fruit with eggs and random abortion of fruit, without reference to whether they have eggs or not, can limit pollinator population size. We model the consequences of these features for plant population dynamics and mating system evolution. Mathematical models, examining the consequences of this network structure for the stability of pollinator communities suggest that the specific way in which plantpollinator networks are organized minimizes competition between pollinators and may even lead to strong indirect facilitation between pollinators when conditions are harsh. Generalist pollinators visiting higher density plant species coupled with auton omous selfing may introduce an effect where populations decreasing in density. Here we present a mechanistic model of plant and pollinator population dynamics with the ability to represent a broad spectrum of interaction structures. We synthesize current knowledge about mycorrhizal effects on plant plant interactions and ecological specialization. Environmental effects on insects and their population dynamics.

Recently plant pollinator networks have become an increasingly publicized ecological system, as there has been a documented loss of pollinator abundance and species diversity across the world potts et. In addition, environmental disturbance can lead to declines in plant and pollinator population growth here expressed by the rates ofc and k, respectively. In the case of pollinators, who rely heavily or entirely on food obtained from flowering plants, floral resource availability. Plant population dynamics, pollinator foraging, and the. The dynamics occurring within plantpollinator networks consist of changes in the abundance of the interacting species andor the strength of the interactions. The project addresses how pollinator declines will affect plant population dynamics in multiple plant species. May 07, 2012 theoretical research attempting to model specific mechanisms of plant pollinator dynamics has found that most competitive pollination interactions should lead to a loss of biodiversity kunin and iwasa 1996. Interactions between species in a community may be mutually beneficial, competitive, or exploitative. Evolution of plantpollinator mutualisms in response to. Critical transitions in plantpollinator systems induced by positive. Recently plantpollinator networks have become an increasingly publicized ecological system, as there has been a documented loss of pollinator abundance and species diversity across the world potts et. Future research should elucidate the roles of biotic and abiotic factors on population dynamics to underpin effective management for conservation. Plant population dynamics, pollinator foraging, and the selection of self. Pdf bee pollination services are inherently shaped by floral resource availability, through the mediation of pollinator population dynamics and.

We demonstrate that the benefit to a plant population is unimodal as a function of pollinator abundance, relative to the abundance of flowers. Using this model, we examined the influence of pollinators on the stability of a plant community and the relationship between pollinator specialization and. Given that information on the status of pollinators and pollination services is far from complete, it is important to establish standardized, widescale, longterm protocols for monitoring pollinator populations and pollination services so that future changes can be assessed and appropriate actions. Explaining variation in the effect of floral density on pollinator.

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