Nuclear power plants are almost exclusively employed to meet the base load of the electric power system, that is, the grid. Because of extended schedule and increased complexity of nuclear power plant construction, the indirect costs have grown even more than the direct ones. Woite is a member of the economics studies section, division of nuclear power and reactors. Terms and definitions connected load is the combined continuous rating of all the receiving apparatus on consumers premises which is connected to the system or part of the system under consideration. The economics of nuclear power november 2008 printable version pdf nuclear power is cost competitive with other forms of electricity generation, except where there is direct access to lowcost fossil fuels. Nuclear power is cost competitive with other forms of electricity generation.
Because the cost of nuclear power is dominated by the. This paper analyzes nuclear power plant investments using monte carlo simulations of economic indicators such as net present value npv. Approximation of the economy of fusion energy sciencedirect. Simon long hosts as money talks investigates why uk prime minister theresa may has reversed course on a new nuclear power plant. Basic economics of power generation, transmission and distribution. The analysis should evaluate the economic feasibility of a nuclear power project and compare its economics to other mutually exclusive alternatives. The economics of nuclear power slipped dramatically and the first commercial orders cannot now be taken before 2014. Electricity markets and financial markets do not easily accommodate these longterm nuclear power plant assets. Therefore, the economical assessment of new power plant construction shall be conservatively made based on actual previous results together with pessimistic assumptions. The data collected for these studies provides a snapshot of the economic impact of an average nuclear power plant. One particularly key variable is the discount rate, a measure of the value of capital.
Whether you need power generation plant maintenance software or power plant safety preventive maintenance software you can be assured that mapcons pricing is the most costefficient of any competitor in the computerized maintenance management software cmms industry. Fuel costs for nuclear plants are a minor proportion of total generating costs. He provides strategic and economic advice to companies and governments on nuclear power and electricity industry issues. The power production business using nuclear power plants has a risk. The european power plant conceptual study is a report summarizing european conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants based on the tokamak concept, proceeding through jet joint european torus, uk and iter. Electricity generation costs can be divided into three components and normalized to a per kilowatthour kwh basis. Generation iv reactors even more speculative are the paper designs for generation iv plutoniumfuelled reactors. Nuclear power plants are capitalintensive, but have low and stable marginal production costs.
The economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation. Nuclear power is cost competitive with other forms of electricity generation, except where there is direct access to lowcost fossil fuels. However, most of the estimates are based on a levelizedcost methodology, which. In these studies 16 the relative merits of different types and sizes of nuclear and conventional power plants for an expanding electricity generation system are. Power plant engineering the latest edition of this hallmark text continues to provide the right blend of theory, design and practice. Nuclear power plant an overview sciencedirect topics. New nuclear power plants typically have high capital expenditure for building the plant. Analytical and theoretical treatment of the concepts along with an uptodate coverage makes this book a must have for all. Section four discusses the costs of building a nuclear power plant and the economic competitiveness of nuclear power compared with other sources of generation. Fuel, operational, and maintenance costs are relatively small.
Many us and canadian nuclear power plant projects initiated in the 1960s and 1970s cost more and took longer to build than predicted, and they operated less. The events of march 2011 at the nuclear power complex in fukushima, japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena. Once built and commissioned, and assuming a good operational performance, nuclear power plants. The economics of nuclear are characterised by low and stable operating costs, resulting from the low proportion of fuel cost in the total cost structure, which have enabled nuclear plants to supply reliable, competitive and low carbon baseload power. The nuclear power 2010 program is a joint governmentindustry costshared effort involved with identifying sites for new nuclear power plants, developing advanced nuclear plant technologies, evaluating the business case for building new nuclear power plants, and demonstrating untested regulatory processes. The economics of power generation has assumed a great importance in this fast developing economics of power generation chapter 4. These timing issues may arise as a result of a nuclear power plant having a capacity obligation in an rtoiso market or as a result of nrc requirements and restrictions.
Some governments are exploring measures to make the economics of new plants more attractive. In most industrialized countries, electric power is provided by generating facilities that serve a large number of customers. However, sometimes nuclear power plants operate at power levels below 50%. Acknowledgements valuable comments and contributions were received from mr. Climate policy nuclear policy energy economy model mitigation scenarios. It takes up to 10 years to develop and build a new nuclear power plant that will then operate for 60 years or longer. This study applies a multicriteria approach for assessing the range of issues. You will never be forced to pay for more software than you need or want. The iaea helps strengthen member states capacities to use energy and nuclear power planning tools to conduct studies for energy system and electricity supply options. Nuclear power stations typically have high capital costs, but low direct fuel costs, with the costs of fuel extraction, processing, use and spent fuel storage internalized costs. The nuclear debate is strong in many countries, with the discussion of its economics being a significant part of it. Operating costs of nuclear power plants have fallen steadily over the past twenty years as capacity.
He was a member of an international panel appointed by the south african department of minerals and energy to carry out a study of the technical and economic viability of a new design of nuclear power plant, the pebble bed modular reactor 200102. Nuclear energys economic benefits current and future. The facility was completed in the mid1980s, but public protest resulted in its closure before it produced commercial power. The economics of nuclear energy gala university of greenwich. Unreliable forecasts in recent years there have been numerous studies of the economics of. Nuclear power, because of its capitalintensive nature, is competitive only for low discount rates.
It is therefore vital for nuclear operators to achieve high plant capacity factors4. The economics of new nuclear power plants in liberalized. Section four discusses the costs of building a nuclear power plant and the economic competitiveness of nuclear power compared with. Economic assessment of nuclear power plant production. Fuel costs for nuclear plants are a minor proportion of total generating costs, though capital costs are greater than those for coalfired and much greater than those for gasfired plants. Rates of learning in nuclear power plant manufacturing have been extremely low. Inputoutput models link various sectors of the economyagriculture, construction. For nuclear power plants any cost figures normally include spent fuel management, plant decommissioning and final waste disposal. Fuel costs for nuclear plants are a minor proportion of total generating costs, though capital costs are greater than those for coalfired and much greater than those for. In order to stay competitive in modern energy markets, npp managers must integrate management of production, safetyrelated, and economic risks in an effective way. Nuclear power economics, economic analysis for nuclear. Edward kee is an expert on nuclear power economics. Capital investment costs of nuclear power plants iaea.
Technical and economic aspects of load following with. On average today, the electricity produced by operational nuclear plants in the united states tends to be cost competitive with gas or coalgenerated power after the plants have been paid for. In todays global energy environment, nuclear power plant npp managers need to consider many dimensions of risk in addition to nuclear safetyrelated risk. He has testified as an expert witness in us and international legal and arbitration cases. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies. As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations the heat is. Fuel costs for nuclear plants are a minor proportion of total generating costs, though capital. Natural mining milling conversion enrichment startup construction site selection and approval fuel fabrication power plant spent fuel energy storage. Pdf improved economics of nuclear plant life management.
Basic economics of power generation, transmission and. Pdf on jan 1, 2012, mark diesendorf and others published the. These generating facilities, known as central station generators, are often located in remote areas, far from the point of consumption. The economics of nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, and multibilliondollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. Nuclear and hydro power output continue to grow, although their shares within global power edge lower nuclear and hydro power generation continue to grow over the outlook, although less rapidly than overall power generation, such that their shares within overall power generation decline. The economics of nuclear power world nuclear association. Why indias electricity is likely to remain in short. A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. Nuclear power plants nuclear economics consulting group. The political economy of nuclear energy in the united states. Economics of nuclear power plant investment diw berlin. Expert group on the economics of longterm operation of nuclear power plants was established for this purpose with representatives from eight countries list of members can be found in appendix 2. The study focuses on four power plant models which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. It is possible, for example, to run a nuclear plant for five hours and then shut it down.
Unlike the 1960s and 1970s, when the utility industry, reactor vendors and government officials monopolized the. Nuclear and hydro power generation energy economics home. The nuclear industry sector requires a compre hensive. The economics of central station generation is largely a matter of costing. Turning to the future, a levy on emissions of carbon dioxide would improve the competitiveness of nuclear power. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation. For high learning rates to be achieved, there must be a standardized reactor built in large quantities.
Thus, once a nuclear power plant has been built, it may make economic sense to keep the pl ant in service even if the overall cost of. Thus, once a nuclear power plant has been built, it may make economic sense to keep the plant in service even if the overall cost of generation, including the construction cost, is higher than the alternatives. The adoption of new online monitoring, diagnostic and eventually prognostics technologies has the potential to impact the economics of the existing nuclear power plant fleet, new plants and. Nuclear energy economics in a sustainable development perspective. The comparison showed that nuclear power is significantly more expensive for a wide range of realistic parameters.
As this report shows, the new economics of nuclear power means that the role of government intervention in the energy marketplace today is primarily a matter of stimulating the pace of energy decisions favouring nuclear power that now have a pure longterm economic rationale. Doing this, however, imposes a large cost in the form of wear and tear on the plants components. The economics of maintaining the existing fleet of nuclear power plants, investment in new nuclear power plants, and the economic impacts of constraints on co 2 emissions, not to mention considerations of safety, waste disposal, proliferation, and spentfuel reprocessing. Download power plant engineering by p k nag download. Explain how a nuclear power plant uses the process of nuclear fission to produce electricity. The economics of longterm operation of nuclear power plants. A key issue is the degree of flexibility in reversing an announced decision to retire a nuclear plant early. Nuclear power plant in long island, ny, is an example of this. New plant construction creates demand for skilled labor such as welders, pipefitters, masons, carpenters. The economic future of nuclear power american academy of.1416 1345 158 1223 1579 390 1154 751 501 1583 93 137 91 845 1591 100 1507 907 297 238 1019 651 1586 1481 1502 652 591 619 9 1018 1558 97 494 1010 721 1334 1459 331 66 213 557